PhD in Economics, Associate Professor, Deputy Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute
for Education Development of National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Honored Worker of Education of Ukraine, Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute
for Education Development of National Aviation University
PhD in Educational Management and Leadership Policy, Admissions Officer,
The British University in Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
ORCID : 0000-0002-0088-3523
Abstract. The article explores the key results of the modernization of higher education in Ukraine during the 30th anniversary of independence. Authors considered topic in compliance with the democratic principles of community development in the context of European integration and globalization of the digital space. Also, different aspects of distance learning are shown and described the expansion of the rights of student self-government bodies. There are revealed innovations and results of the admission campaign to higher education institutions of Ukraine of entrants from the temporarily occupied territories of Crimea and Donbass. İn conclusion authors are highlighted the results of a poll conducted by the Democratic Initiatives Foundation together with the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in 2021 on independent external evaluation in the context of the pandemic COVID 19 and the reduction of corruption in admission to higher education institutions.
Keywords: Ukraine, modernization, democratic development, education, globalization, distance learning, survey
Democracy is a political regime under which the people are recognized as the only legitimate source of power in the state .
The state is governed directly by the people it is a direct democracy. The state is governed through elected representatives is a representative democracy .
Democracy is also sometimes defined as a set of ideas and principles relating to freedom because it is an institutional freedom. In the words of the 16th President of the United States Abraham Lincoln, democracy is governance «in the name of the people, the forces of the people and for the people».
Knowledge is rightly considered the most important material of the XXI century. And higher education institutions are priority thought factories in which new knowledge is obtained and generated.
New knowledge in higher education provides innovation in the economy and society. Therefore, investing in higher education is an essential prerequisite for the prosperity of any country.
Proper support of educational institutions at all levels in accordance with the democratic principles of society is the key to a responsible policy in the field of education.
Higher education is involved in solving urgent problems in many areas, the main of which are: industry, services, health, nutrition, resources, environmental safety.
In addition, education is a center of cultural development, where initiatives for social transformation and democracy are born, cultural identity is formed. They are also important for ensuring social unity.
The state policy of any country in the field of education plays a crucial role in ensuring the development of human capital and economic benefits. The development of human capital and economic benefits involves sustainable growth of a competitive national economy, improving social and individual well-being, improving the quality of life .
All countries of the world are trying to improve their education and knowledge systems. This applies not only to traditional industrialized countries, but also to newly industrialized and developing countries.
Achieving these goals in Ukraine requires coordinated political initiatives, improving the political situation, returning Crimea and Donbass, making effective management decisions, attracting domestic and foreign long-term investments into the economy, education and science. Today, all these processes are burdened by the conditions of the long-term pandemic COVID-19.
Ukrainian education and science must meet modern demands from the individual and society, adherence to democratic principles, the needs of the economy, global trends in the digital space.
That is why in Ukraine there is a systematic transformation of the educational sphere to ensure a new quality of education at all levels, from preschool education to higher education and adult education.
The aim of the article is to reveal the results of modernization of higher education of the independent Ukrainian state with observance of the principles of democracy in the conditions of European integration and globalization of the world digital space.
Materials and methods of research
Legislative and normative acts of Ukraine were used in the course of the research. The main research methods are analysis and synthesis, logical and historical approach, comparison, grouping, generalization.
Modernization of education in Ukraine is carried out in the following five priority ways (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Priority ways of modernization of education in Ukraine
The common goal of modernization of all levels of education is to turn Ukrainian education into an innovative environment in the conditions of strengthening democracy.
The main achievements in the modernization of higher education and the spread of democratic principles in its development in Ukraine are shown in Figure 2.
Fig. 2. Key achievements of modernization of higher education and dissemination of democratic principles of its development in Ukraine
Adult education is a recognized component of the education system in the European Education Area.
Adult education is a component of lifelong learning, which aims to realize the right of every adult (adult) to lifelong learning, taking into account his personal needs, priorities of social development and the needs of the economy.
Adult education is an important issue for modern Ukrainian society .
Adult education can be carried out in different types of educational programs, full-time, distance, dual, mixed, individual forms.
The growing demands of society to a democratic approach, content, organization, methodological support, staffing and overall efficiency of education intensify the processes of radical modernization of learning technologies. In the context of the COVID 19 pandemic, distance education is naturally the subject of increased interest in research, critical evaluation and its improvement (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Characteristics of distance education
With the advent of the Internet, distance education has acquired the properties of a universal means of communication and a postmodern phenomenon.
The coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 at the beginning of the 21st century has become an unexpected, unforeseen, threatening challenge to the life or death of human civilization.
Modern humanity is facing for the first time a situation where human rights and the principles of democracy are limited in all countries of the world (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Restrictions on human rights and violations of the principles of democracy due to the pandemic COVID – 19
In conditions of pandemic, quarantine and lockdown, people in different parts of the world exercise the right to receive educational services through distance education only.
However, today there are many debatable issues regarding the effectiveness of distance learning in educational institutions, including higher education institutions. This topic is discussed by both teaching and technical staff, as well as students (pupils and students) and their parents. And also the problem of distance learning is discussed in general in the society of each country of the world.
Numerous scientific and practical conferences, symposia and congresses in different countries of the world are devoted to this topic. Thus, on May 12, 2021, the Institute for Educational Development of the National Aviation University (Kyiv, Ukraine) held an International Scientific and Practical Conference «Distance Education in Ukraine: Innovative, Regulatory, Pedagogical Aspects», which was attended by scientists from various foreign countries. (Great Britain, Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, India, Turkey, Croatia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, the Republic of Belarus).
There are different opinions about the advantages / disadvantages of distance education over traditional, prospects and ways of developing distance learning [10-16].
The results of the study on how the learner (students) react to such changes, what are the advantages and what are the disadvantages, were interesting.
During the study, students of Ukrainian higher education institutions were interviewed. These students were asked, «What is better: online learning or live classes in classrooms?»
From the answers we got the final result – opinions were divided equally 50% by 50% .
The arguments were different. The main advantages of distance learning (online) are shown in Figure 5.
Fig. 6. The main disadvantages of distance learning (online) according to Ukrainian students
Many students said that they had a lot of free time with distance learning. Therefore, to the question «Have students mastered new skills since the beginning of distance learning?» almost 71% of respondents said yes. The answers were varied (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. Mastering new skills by Ukrainian students from the beginning of distance learning
Thus, distance learning according to students has positive and negative features. However, the XXI century is impossible without the use of modern innovative educational technologies. We just need to find effective ways to solve them. Students need to master time management skills to plan their day properly.
Student self-government in higher education institutions is an important lever for the observance of democratic principles in education. Every university, institute, academy has student self-government bodies.
On November 18, 2021, on the eve of the International Student Day (November 17), the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine registered a draft Law «On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine «On Higher Education» regarding expansion of the rights of student self-government bodies , which proposes to significantly expand the rights of students (Fig. 8).
aft Law of Ukraine оn expansion of the rights of student self-government bodies
If adopted, the bill will strengthen the role of students in the autonomy of higher education institutions, the development of public self-government in higher education, managerial and leadership skills, financial literacy, civic responsibility in student youth, increase its subjectivity and form it as an independent partner in implementation educational function of higher education institutions.
On November 2, 2021, the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) of Ukraine hosted an online briefing on «Results of the admission campaign to Ukrainian higher education institutions from the temporarily occupied territories of Donbass and Crimea in 2021» with the participation of the Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine Serhiy Shkarlet .
The Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine noted that the integration of young people from the temporarily occupied territories into Ukraine is one of the highest priorities for the Ministry of Education and Science. «Crimea-Ukraine» and «Donbass-Ukraine» Educational Centers have been operating since 2016 to ensure access to Ukrainian education for persons with disabilities.
In 2021, a new Procedure for Admission of Persons Living in the Temporarily Occupied Territory of the Autonomous Republic was approved for the organization of admission to institutions of higher, professional higher and professional (vocational) education through the educational centers «Donbass-Ukraine» and «Crimea-Ukraine». Crimea and the city Sevastopol, the temporarily occupied territory of certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions, the territory of settlements on the line of contact .
This provision defines a simplified procedure for admission to Ukrainian institutions of higher and professional higher education through Educational Centers.
Since the beginning of the «Crimea-Ukraine» and «Donbass-Ukraine», the number of entrants from the Crimea and Donbass TOT to Ukrainian higher education institutions has doubled: in 2016, 1,008 students were enrolled, in 2021 – 2,083 students. In order to ensure the safety of entrants in the ranking lists and enrollment orders, the name was encrypted .
On April 28, 2020, a Memorandum of Cooperation was signed between the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the Government Contact Center and the Open Policy Foundation on the implementation of the project «Access to Education for Students from Non-Governmental Territories by Supporting Activities through hotline» .
In 2021 the hotline received almost 5,000 calls and registered more than 4,500 calls .
On the initiative of the «Open Policy» Foundation, a roadmap and step-by-step instructions have been developed to help entrants from uncontrolled territories of Ukraine to higher / professional higher education institutions without a Ukrainian passport, external independent assessment or Ukrainian certificate of secondary education through Education Centers «Donbass Ukraine» and «Crimea-Ukraine» .
Since the beginning of the war, 8,225 children from the temporarily occupied territories have entered universities through the «Donbass-Ukraine» and «Crimea-Ukraine» Educational Centers under a simplified procedure without external independent evaluation (EIE), a Ukrainian certificate, and a passport.
During the 30 years of independence, the process of Ukraine’s formation as a democratic state has been going on.
In 1992, a non-governmental organization, the «Democratic Initiatives Foundation», was founded. Since 2010, the Foundation has been named after its founder and first director, Ilko Kucheriv (1955–2010), who made a significant contribution to the establishment of Ukraine as a democratic state, to the development of Ukrainian sociology and civil society.
The Foundation is one of the leading think tanks in Ukraine, which successfully combines public opinion research with analysis of policy and key socio-political processes, develops reasoned proposals for decision-making bodies, as well as for the public in the field of democratic transformation of Ukraine and its integration into the European community of democracies.
The «Democratic Initiatives» Foundation is the first non-governmental organization to act as a mediator between public opinion researchers and the public itself, analyzing and presenting to the public the public opinion of the Ukrainian population on acute social problems .
Since 2010, the «Democratic Initiatives» Foundation has been a member of the international network of PASOS think tanks, which significantly strengthens its development capabilities as a think tank. In 2014, he joined the Association of Ukrainian Analytical Centers, which consolidates their efforts to promote reforms and European integration in Ukraine, the Liaison Office of Ukrainian Analytical Centers in Brussels .
The Democratic Initiatives Foundation is a member of the Ukrainian National Platform of the Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum in Brussels.
According to the Global Go To Think Tank Index, which is compiled under the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the University of Pennsylvania (USA), the Foundation is ranked among the most influential think tanks. centers of the world .
The Foundation regularly holds public events (public debates, round tables, press conferences) dedicated to the issues of development of the Ukrainian state, national interests, development of democracy, integration of the country into European and Euro-Atlantic structures. The «Democratic Initiatives» Foundation continues its work towards Euro-Atlantic integration. Starting as a public center to support Ukraine’s accession to NATO, today the fund has gained a reputation as an authoritative analytical source on the Euro-Atlantic sentiment of Ukrainians .
The Ilko Kucheriv «Democratic Initiatives» Foundation, together with the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology, conducted an all-Ukrainian survey «How Do Ukrainians Assess Education and Admission in a Pandemic?» From June 1 to 7, 2021, 2003 respondents over the age of 18 were interviewed in all regions of Ukraine, except for the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and part of the territory of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts.
Since 2008, the main criterion for selecting students for higher education institutions is the results of external independent evaluation (EIE).
71% of Ukrainians, to some extent, support admission to higher education institutions based on the results of external evaluation. For example, in 2014, the EIT was supported by 60%, which is 11% less than in 2021. At the same time, compared to last year, not only the number of supporters of the EIЕ has increased, but also those who have a negative attitude to its conduct. If in 2020 14% were against external evaluation, then in 2021 it is already 23% .
The pandemic has made its adjustments to the assessment of external evaluation by citizens. The data show that the vast majority not only continue to support the EIE, but also that this support is growing.
However, such unanimity among Ukrainians regarding the external evaluation during the pandemic COVID-19 is not observed. Opinions were divided equally: 45,7% support the EIE even in a pandemic, 45,7% – oppose, the other 8, 6% were undecided (Table 1).
Despite the readiness of almost half of the respondents to support the abolition of EIT during the pandemic, 74% agreed that EIE promotes equality of participants in the accession phase, and 58% believe that EIE also reduces corruption in the accession phase  (Tables 3 – 4).
Thus, the key results of modernization of higher education in Ukraine on the 30th anniversary of independence in compliance with the democratic principles of community development in the context of European integration and globalization of the digital space were reflected: financial autonomy of higher education institutions; changing approaches to university management; introduction of indicative cost of higher education; creation of a system of higher education standards; deregulation of licensing conditions and introduction of electronic licensing of activities; expanding the access of entrants living in the temporarily occupied territories of Crimea and Donbas to Ukrainian higher education institutions; introduction of a single state qualification exam using external independent assessment; pilot project on dual education in higher education institutions; promoting lifelong learning (adult education) and expanding the rights of student government.
Ukraine is systematically transforming the educational sphere to ensure a new quality of education at all levels.
The XXI century is impossible without the use of modern innovative educational learning technologies. The importance of distance education is growing in the context of the pandemic COVID 19.
The results of a poll conducted by the «Democratic Initiatives» Foundation in cooperation with the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in 2021 reflected a positive assessment of conducting an independent external evaluation in the context of the pandemic COVID 19 and reducing corruption in higher education.
Ukrainian education meets modern demands of the individual and society, adheres to democratic principles in the context of Euro-Atlantic integration of the country and the globalization of the digital space.
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Lyudmila Laktionova, Qalina Lazareva, Məhəmməd Camal
UKRAYNADA DEMOKRATİK İNKİŞAF VƏ ALİ TƏHSİLİNMÜASİRLƏŞMƏSİNİN YENİ MƏRHƏLƏSİ
Məqalədə müstəqilliyin 30-cu ildönümündə Ukraynada ali təhsilin modernləşdirilməsinin əsas nəticələri araşdırılır. Müəlliflər mövzunu Avropaya inteqrasiya və rəqəmsal məkanın qloballaşması kontekstində cəmiyyətin inkişafının demokratik prinsiplərinə uyğun olaraq nəzərdən keçiriblər. Burada həmçinin distant təhsilin müxtəlif aspektləri göstərilir və tələbə hüquqlarının genişləndirilməsi təsvir edilir. Krım və Donbasın müvəqqəti işğal olunmuş ərazilərindən olan abituriyentlər üçün Ukraynanın ali təhsil müəssisələrinə qəbul kampaniyasının yenilikləri və nəticələri açıqlanır. Sonda müəlliflər Demokratik Təşəbbüslər Fondunun Kiyev Beynəlxalq Sosiologiya İnstitutu ilə birlikdə 2021-ci ildə COVID-19 pandemiyası kontekstində müstəqil xarici qiymətləndirmə və ali təhsil müəssisələrinə qəbulda korrupsiyanın azaldılması ilə bağlı keçirdiyi sorğunun nəticələrini vurğulayırlar.
Açar sözlər: Ukrayna, modernləşmə, demokratik inkişaf, təhsil, qloballaşma, distant təhsil, sorğu
Людмила Лахтионова, Галина Лазарева, Мохаммад Джаммал,
ДЕМОКРАТИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ И НОВЫЙ ЭТАП МОДЕРНИЗАЦИИ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УКРАИНЕ
В статье исследуются основные результаты модернизации высшего образования Украины в период 30-летия независимости. Авторы рассматривали тему в соответствии с демократическими принципами развития общества в контексте европейской интеграции и глобализации цифрового пространства. Также показаны разные аспекты дистанционного обучения и описаны расширение прав органов студенческого самоуправления. Выявлены нововведения и результаты приемной кампании в высшие учебные заведения Украины абитуриентов с временно оккупированных территорий Крыма и Донбасса. В заключении авторы освещают результаты опроса, проведенного Фондом «Демократические инициативы» совместно с Киевским международным институтом социологии в 2021 году по независимой внешней оценке в условиях пандемии COVID-19 и снижения коррупции при приеме в высшие учебные заведения.
Ключевые слова: Украина, модернизация, демократическое развитие, образование, глобализация, дистанционное обучение, опрос