Malik Musawar HAMEED
Founder and President of the Youth Diplomacy Forum,
BS International Relations, Pakistan
Abstract. During the Soviet period, Karabakh was an autonomous region within Azerbaijan with an area of about 4,400 square kilometers. In 1991, Armenia and Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union. As a result of the occupation policy of Armenia, the first Karabakh war broke out between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The UN Security Council adopted 4 resolutions on the occupation and liberation of lands.
In 1994, both countries reached a ceasefire agreement. Despite this, illegal elections were being held in the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic at the time, which Azerbaijan opposed. Many attempts were made to resolve the conflict peacefully and keep peace in the South Caucasus. On September 27, 2020, as a result of the provocation of the Armenian side hostilities broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia, resulting in the “Second Karabakh War”, which lasted 44 days. This war was won by Azerbaijan, which liberated its ancient lands from the Armenian occupation. On the initiative of the Russian Federation, on November 9-10, a tripartite statement was signed on a complete ceasefire and all hostilities in the zone of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. According to the statement, the contingent of the Russian peacekeeping forces was temporarily deployed in Karabakh for a period of 5 years.
Keywords: Azerbaijan, Armenia, OSCE, Karabakh Wars, post-conflict period, peace, return of refugees, restoration and revival
The status of Karabakh, before and after occupation, the liberation of Karabakh, Azerbaijan’s victory in this war, the role of modern warfare/drone technology, the role of peacekeeping, and the future social, political, economic, and military outcomes of this problem will all be discussed in this article.
From 1991 through 2021, it covers the historical context, social, political, economic, and military components of Azerbaijan and Armenia. It is critical to research the Karabakh conflict since modern technology, particularly drone technology, has been used in warfare in the modern period, resulting in the liberation of the Karabakh territory. We’ll talk about how Azerbaijan won the battle, the causes and implications of the second Karabakh war, and what the future holds with Russian and in the region. (2015)I
Reasons and consequences of failure of OSCE?
Who is a peaceful regional actor in the Caucasian region?
The Future of Karabakh: How are peace and refugee return processes related?
This is a descriptive, qualitative, and quantitative study, with data acquired from a variety of social media platforms, including official websites, news, and publications. When did this fight begin, and who initiated it? Why and how did a 44-day war occur? Is it a religious or political conflict? What are the United Nations resolutions?
Who was the perpetrator of war crimes and cultural genocide? Karabakh’s War impact on economic operations and facilities, as well as the war’s effects for both countries
Regarding the Azerbaijan-Armenia conflict, I have come to the conclusion that Azerbaijan as a country that liberated its territory from occupation is a peaceful regional actor in Karabakh in terms of security, economy, trade, and transportation links, among other things. Peacekeeping soldiers stationed in Karabakh for an extended period of time pose a threat to Azerbaijan’s sovereignty. Although possessing resources and significant oil and gas pipelines, it is a question of territorial integrity.
Theory of realism is applied on Second Karabakh War and future of Karabakh region. According to realism, state is a unitary actor, decision makers are rational actors to achieve national interests, lastly, there is no established hierarchy internationally. In case of Azerbaijan and Armenia, this is considered to be military intervention from Armenian side. Coercive and aggressive Armenian nature and policies moved both countries towards violence which further leads to war. The 44 days wars solved the disputes which started 30 years ago. War was used as a tool to gain national interest. Armenia started the war to take further control of Karabakh region but failed to do so. In response, Azerbaijan won the war, regained the control of territories which were lost in first Karabakh war. Moreover, Azerbaijan implemented UN resolutions by using military force and liberated the lands which were internationally recognized as territories of Azerbaijan by the UN.
- Historical background
- Second Karabakh War
- UN resolutions
- Role of the OSCE Minsk Group
- Deployment of peacekeeping troops
- Development projects
- Peace Agreement
- Trilateral working group
- Future implications
Failure of the OSCE Minsk Group:
Within the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Soviet Union formed the autonomous republic of Nagorno-Karabakh in the 1920s, where the majority of the population is ethnically Armenian. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, as a result of the occupation policy of Armenia, the first Karabakh war broke out between which lasted until 1994. Armenia occupied Karabakh and 20% of adjacent Azerbaijan’s territory in 1993. In 1994, Russia negotiated peace, and a the OSCE Minsk Group was constituted to do so, but it failed to produce any results.
Role of the OSCE:
The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) was established in 1992 to promote Nagorno-Karabakh conflict negotiations and a peaceful resolution. France, Russia, and the United States are in charge. Azerbaijan and Armenia are both parties to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Belarus, Finland, Germany, Italy, Sweden, and Turkey are also members of the OSCE Minsk Group. The OSCE issued a number of declarations stating that the occupation of this region is unacceptably dangerous to regional stability, but that it is unable to propose a solution. During the second Karabakh war, the OSCE, like other organizations, has called for a rapid ceasefire.
Turkey, as an OSCE member, has backed Azerbaijan’s right to self-defense, but the Minsk Group has put Azerbaijan and Armenia in an impasse. Unsuccessful mediation efforts, ceasefire violations, and rising tensions between Azerbaijan and Armenia rekindled a military war between the two countries. The second Karabakh war changed the situation, and brushing aside the Minsk Group’s global diplomacy failed miserably. Russia has a good position by establishing a ceasefire agreement with Turkey, but the Minsk Group is nowhere in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict peace process.
The territorial integrity, self-determination, and security of Nagorno-Karabakh were all omitted by the OSCE. The OSCE’s effectiveness in conflict zones is hampered by this flaw. Furthermore, the OSCE chairmen’ remarks are unclear and ambiguous, and their opinions on the status of Nagorno-Karabakh are not neutral. The Minsk Group has not played a major role in resolving this war, but it has held both parties accountable for the escalation and for maintaining peace. What role does the OSCE play if Azerbaijan and Armenia decide on peace and stability? The fact that conflicting parties will decide peace among themselves is a disadvantage in and of itself. Although the OSCE Minsk Group’s approach appears to be influenced by France, the mediator was supposed to represent unbiased involvement. France is one of the OSCE’s Co-Chairs, and the majority of Armenians live there. (Chairmanship 10/10/2020)II
Following the Second Karabakh War, the French president paid a visit to Armenian families in France, offering condolences and expressing sympathy. Since 1992, this 30-year conflict has been fueled by territorial claims, ethnic and religious disputes, and war crimes. Unfortunately, the OSCE failed to play a critical role, resulting in the Armenian-Azerbaijani wars and allowing the Russian Federation to intervene. A researcher from NUML conducted an interview from ADA University’s Vice Rector, Mr. Fariz Ismailzadeh. The Vice Rector was asked about the failure of the OSCE, and he stated that while the OSCE failed to produce positive outcomes such as peace and stability in the Caucasus, Russia played a significant role in providing a peace agreement, establishing a ceasefire, and deploying peacekeeping forces for five years.
Mr. Fariz further said that the OSCE failed to mediate in the First and Second Karabakh wars between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Also, the OSCE did not expressly defend Azerbaijan’s territorial integrity because it is not on the OSCE’s agenda. Despite the fact that the OSCE has given or deployed peacekeeping personnel in Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, it has not done so in Azerbaijan.
An online interview was taken by a researcher from Azerbaijani Member of Parliament Ms. Nigar Arpadarai. While discussing about OSCE Minsk Group, she said that OSCE failed to resolve the Karabakh conflict since 1994. She also said that approach of OSCE was not neutral.
The UN resolutions on Karabakh:
The United Nations Security Council passed four resolutions in response to the deteriorating situation between Azerbaijan and Armenia: resolution 822 (30 April 1993), resolution 853 (29 July 1993), resolution 874 (14 October 1993), and resolution 884 (12 November 1993). Most notably, it expressed grave concern about the large-scale displacement of civilians and requested an immediate end to all hostilities and the unconditional departure of Armenian forces. The UN also calls on both parties to restart talks on resolving Nagorno-Karabakh.
Furthermore, it is demanded that international humanitarian relief efforts conducted under the auspices of the OSCE avoid from any illegal actions. The occupation of Azerbaijani districts and attacks on citizens and populated areas were also denounced by the UN Security Council.
After defeating Armenian Armed Forces in the Second Karabakh War, the Republic of Azerbaijan regained its territorial integrity. Armenia broke the ceasefire and disobeyed UN resolutions by staging provocations along the Azerbaijan border, resulting in a 44-day conflict.III
Some journalists and analysts believe it is unclear who started the battle, but both sides are blaming one other. In reality, in the middle of a global pandemic, Armenian soldiers breached a ceasefire agreement by firing on Azerbaijani positions in the Tovuz border region on July 12, 2020. As a result of the clashes, a civilian and 12 Azerbaijani military, including Major General Polad Hashimov, were killed, while scores were injured. This sparked a conflict between the two countries, with Azerbaijan liberating land that had been occupied by Armenia for the previous 30 years. According to Serj Sargsyan, a former Armenian president, the Armenian administration referred to the clashes as a successful action.
He remarked, “In my perspective, it was a harmful move for which Azerbaijan was obligated to respond.” In an interview with the BBC, the former president of Armenia stated. (Sheikh 10/2/2020)IV
Azerbaijani MEP Ms. Arpadarai while giving interview stated that Armenia violated International law, United Nations resolutions and destroyed the cultural heritage of Azerbaijan. Armenia committed war crimes on the internationally recognized territory of Azerbaijan.
Karabakh before and after
According to the Republic of Azerbaijan, decades of occupation resulted in the systematic destruction of Azerbaijani towns, cultural, historical, and religious sites. Armenia, which caused the creation of a “gray zone” in Karabakh was cultivating drugs on Azerbaijani property that was illegally controlled. Armenia also planted millions of landmines across the Nagorno-Karabakh territory. Armenia has also repeatedly breached the ceasefire agreement, leading to the Second Karabakh War. From Khojaly in 1992 to Ganja in 2020, Armenia’s ethnically driven fascist policies against Azerbaijani population spanned 30 years.
Trilateral peace agreement:
Armenia will ensure the security of regional transportation corridors and communication networks.
Member of Milli Mejlis (parliament of the Republic of Azerbaijan), Ms. Nigar Arpadarai said that using rhetoric of Russian intervention is not correct. Russia has not intervened but supported Azerbaijan and helped in ceasefire as well as peace agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan. She also stated that Russia is strategic partner of Azerbaijan. (Broers 20202)V
The Second Karabakh War began on September 27, 2020, and ended on November 10, 2020. During the 44-day war, about 2800 Azerbaijani military and 100 civilians were killed. The war between Azerbaijan and Armenia came to an end on November 10 when the Russian Federation brokered a ceasefire agreement between the two countries. Armenia’s regular missile attacks on Azerbaijani cities across the frontline, according to a Central Asia Caucasus analyst, have prompted concerns in the European Union. According to him, the EU was concerned about energy infrastructure security, particularly damage to the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline and the Trans Anatolian pipeline.
Trans Adriatic Pipeline:
The Southern Gas Corridor includes the Trans Adriatic Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Azerbaijan’s Shah Deniz II field to Europe. The Second Karabakh War began a month before TAP’s operational phase. Because it will deliver 10 billion cubic meters of gas per year from Azerbaijan to Greece, Albania, and Italy, this pipeline is of critical importance to Europe. It establishes a link between the region and Western markets.VI
The “indiscriminate onslaught on residential areas in the conflict zone of Karabakh is unacceptable,” according to the UN Secretary General. Armenian soldiers also conducted an artillery bombardment on Azerbaijan’s Goran-boy area, killing people, according to Human Rights Watch. Armenia launched SCUD missiles at Azerbaijan’s Ganja city and Armenia’s Fuzuli area. Armenian soldiers began pounding the “Tartar” area, causing severe destruction and many civilian casualties. According to official Azerbaijani data, 1000 civilian objects were partially damaged or destroyed, including schools, hospitals, and government facilities. These are Armenian war crimes perpetrated during the Second Karabakh War, which have not been resolved even after the war. Landmines have been discovered in the region.
Landmines were discovered in the liberated territory, killing many people who came to see them. Following the discovery of landmines in previously occupied regions, Azerbaijan began the demining effort with the assistance of Turkish businesses, and UNDP later joined the project.
Land Mines in Karabakh:
The area of Karabakh is thickly laced with mines and unexploded ordnance a year after fierce warfare between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Thousands of mines have been removed, but clearing the area completely might take more than ten years. The government-run Azerbaijan national agency for mine action is in charge of demining operations (ANAMA). According to a Trust survey, landmines and cluster bombs are found in 68 percent of populated towns. More than 16 kilometres of land are estimated to be contaminated and will not be suitable for agricultural production, according to Trust. Talking about landmine issue the Azerbaijani parliamentarian said that around 97000 mines are found only in Aghdam district of Azerbaijan. The maps provided to Azerbaijan are not accurate which results the deaths of many innocent lives.
Mine Maps dispute:
According to the Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action, in total, 3,358 people, including 357 children and 38 women, have been killed by mines since the Armenian occupation. 18000 anti-personnel mines, over 9000 mines, and 23000 unexploded ordnances have been cleared, as well as 19000 hectares of land. Armenia provided a large number of land mine maps, however only around a quarter of them are accurate.
Mr. Fariz, Vice Rector of ADA University, and Ms. Aybaniz Ismailyova, Head of the Karabakh Revival Fund, posed the issue. Both of them stated that the maps provided by Armenia are incorrect. Armenia must offer detailed maps of landmines because if Armenia does not provide accurate information regarding landmines, the rehabilitation process will be hampered and would take a long time.
“The ones we did receive were erroneous and incomplete,” said ANAMA Deputy Chairman Samir Poladov. Many don’t even have coordinates; instead, they have a basic map of the area with some information and approximate locations, but it’s better to have something than nothing.”
Armenia was discovered to have planted more than 100,000 landmines in the region, according to a UN report. People who were uprooted in the 1990s wanted to return to their hometowns after 30 years, according to Azerbaijani authorities. As a result of some visitors to the area, 60 villagers were hurt, including two who died as a result of landmines. The removal of landmines from the area is required for rehabilitation.VII (Gencturk 2021)
ANAMA, in collaboration with UNICEF, is launching a campaign to raise awareness about the dangers of landmines among visitors to the freed areas.
Destruction by Armenia and Revival by Azerbaijan: Development projects after liberation:
The majority of the territory had been destroyed and the cultural legacy had been destroyed following the three decades of Armenian control. Azerbaijan is committed to reviving and rebuilding the region after reaching a trilateral peace accord. Azerbaijani businesses are engaged in the newly liberated areas. ANAMA, UNDP, and Turkish firms are working to clear landmines. Ms. Aybaniz Ismailyova, the head of the Karabakh Revival Fund, told a researcher that Azerbaijan is clearing landmines with the help of Turkish enterprises and the UNDP. The building of the Fuzuli International Airport and the smart community project are now underway. Azerbaijan began construction efforts to revitalise and reconstruct Karabakh after 30 years of occupation. Karabakh is culturally and historically significant to Azerbaijan. The reconstruction of the liberated districts was budgeted at over 2.2 billion AZN. ($1.29 billion). The Fuzuli International Airport, dubbed “Karabakh’s Gateway to the World,” was the first big project. Villages and cities are being rebuilt, like Aghdam, where over 50,000 people will live in the next three years. VIII(Isayev 2021 )
Smart village project:
A smart village is a rural location where old and new networks and services are improved through digital, telecommunications, and innovation to raise living standards, provide public services for inhabitants, and reduce environmental impact. In the freed lands, the government of the Republic of Azerbaijan has already begun a project to develop a smart village. President Ilham Aliyev of Azerbaijan announced the construction of the country’s first smart village in the Zangilan area, which will have 200 residences in a modern and urban setting. Housing, production, social services, smart agriculture, and alternative energy are among the topics covered.IX(Lmahamad 11/17/2021)
Dost Agro Park:
In the recently liberated territories, Turkish and Azerbaijani investors established the Agricultural Park project, which aims to execute agricultural activities using modern technology. The president of Azerbaijan stated that “we have already begun the rehabilitation of the liberated lands and the application of contemporary urban planning.” The regions that have been freed will be turned into a green energy zone. To develop Agro-Park, 20,000 hectares of soil were cleaned of mines and 50,000 mines were neutralized in the region.
Electric substations were built in the Karabakh districts of Jabrayil, Fuzuli, Zangilan, Gubadli, and Kalbadjar. In addition, new highways and buildings are being constructed.X (Garib 2021 )
Trilateral working group:
On January 11, 2021, the leaders of Russia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia agreed to form a working group composed of the three countries’ Deputy Prime Ministers to construct transit corridors and commercial links in Karabakh. In October 2021, the trilateral working group was chaired by Azerbaijan’s Deputy Prime Minister Shahin Mustafayev, Armenia’s Deputy Prime Minister Mher Grigoryan, and Russia’s Deputy Prime Minister Alexei Overchuk. This Moscow-based group will investigate options for re-establishing transport linkages in the South Caucasus. XI
Post war development projects by Azerbaijan:
Delimitation and demarcation of borders between Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as participation in peace treaty discussions, are essential for regional peace. Azerbaijan has declared its willingness to talk to Armenia over the future of Karabakh on various occasions. Azerbaijan took an active role in regional connectivity projects such as the construction of East-West and North-West transportation lines. Azerbaijan has begun restoration work in a short period of time, including the construction of highways, tunnels, and electric infrastructure, as well as the restoration of historical sites, Mausoleums, Mosques, and Monuments to Famous Azerbaijani People, and, most importantly, a new residential district in Susha (Cradle of Azerbaijan). The president of Azerbaijan indicated that normalizing relations with neighbors, abandoning territorial claims, forming a working group on border delimitation, and adhering to the peace treaty are the only ways for Armenia to grow.
Azerbaijan has also asked many corporations from around the world to invest in the liberated areas. It also began diversifying its energy networks by partnering with Turkey, Russia, Iran, and Georgia.
Azerbaijan is recognized by the European Union as a vital transportation and logistics hub. Azerbaijan has transportation potential, as well as a specific agenda in the EU-Azerbaijan relationship. During the 44-day battle, the EU expressed concern about transportation links, particularly the security of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.
Both countries have been involved in two significant wars: the First Karabakh War in 1992 and the Second Karabakh War in 2020. Because of its shaky economy, Azerbaijan was able to reclaim or free land lost during the first Karabakh War. Azerbaijan’s president has stated numerous times that we would liberate our lands sooner or later. The United Nations issued four resolutions calling for the removal of Armenian Armed Forces from Azerbaijan’s internationally recognised territories. The Ceasefire Agreement has been breached numerous times since 1994, but this time in 2020, the conflict lasted 44 days and ended with Azerbaijan’s victory. Pakistan and Turkey backed Azerbaijan during the conflict. Turkey provided military and political help, while Pakistan provided spiritual support.
When several journalists visited Karabakh after the liberation of the Territories, they were killed by landmines. In front of the international community, Azerbaijan protested and accused Armenia of war crimes. In addition, he urged the international community to exert pressure on Armenia to produce minefield maps. Armenia provided landmine maps and received prisoners of war in return. Millions of mines have been laid around the region, constituting a major breach of international law, human rights, and a war crime. Is Karabakh going to be Abkhazia or South Ossetia, as the question of peacekeeping forces in the country is currently being debated? If Armenia violates the ceasefire deal, peacekeepers would stay for more than 5 years, according to Azerbaijani sources. Last Monday, Armenia broke the ceasefire accord and killed nine Azerbaijani soldiers.
In my judgement, if provocations along the border continue, they will disrupt regional peace and stability, as well as the deployment of peacekeepers, even after five years. The demining process is proceeding in Karabakh, as is reconstruction and rehabilitation, as well as development initiatives such as the construction of Fuzuli Airport, but it all hinges on peace. Instability will rise as a result of repeated ceasefire violations, as will Russian presence in Karabakh. We did not establish diplomatic relations with Armenia because of Azerbaijan, in Pakistan’s opinion. Elnur Mammadov, Azerbaijan’s Deputy Foreign Minister, told Al Jazeera that the two countries, which do not officially have diplomatic relations, should make a fresh start. This indicates that Azerbaijan is willing to establish diplomatic ties with its archrival Armenia. XII (Cookman 2021)
Future of Karabakh:
The future of Karabakh is contingent on the existence of a peace accord between Azerbaijan and Armenia. According to the deal, Russian peacekeeping soldiers will stay in Karabakh for five years, possibly longer, while Turkish troops will only be there for one year. In the event of provocations along the delineated border between the two countries, the rehabilitation process will be extremely tough. The Azerbaijani president urged the formation of a working committee to address the problem of border delineation between Azerbaijan and Armenia. Only mutual cooperation between Azerbaijan and Armenia can secure peace. The issue of landmine maps, boundary demarcation, and the release of prisoners of war should be resolved by both countries. Russia played a critical role in ending the fighting, reducing casualties, and establishing a ceasefire agreement, but how long will it last?
According to Azerbaijan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the country is always open to talks with Armenia, and leaders have made declarations pledging to address disputes peacefully. The exchange of Armenian captives and the removal of mine maps from Armenia is a positive gesture. It will aid in the demining process while also boosting regional economic activity.XIII (POW 2021)
Azerbaijan has already put a lot of money into rebuilding Karabakh, but all of the development projects are tied to the Russian-brokered peace accord. Azerbaijan wished to rehabilitate internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Karabakh region, which is contingent on the provision of landmine maps, mine clearing, a truce, and border demarcation.
According to the Azerbaijani parliamentarian the Armenian prisoners are not Prisoners of War but criminals because they were captured after signing peace agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Some of them are returned in exchange of landmine maps, other will be tried in Azerbaijani courts. They are accused of War crimes in the newly liberated territories of Azerbaijan. Moreover, that future of Karabakh is prosperous and discussed about different development projects in Karabakh specifically Fuzuli International Airport and Smart Village project.
Pakistan is always willing to assist the people of Azerbaijan, who are brothers. The assistance exhibited during the second Karabakh war will be maintained. Pakistan and its people support peace-building efforts in Karabakh, which are linked to the Caucasus region’s peace and stability. We strongly condemn the violations of United Nations resolutions, international law, war crimes, and other illegal activities in Karabakh. Azerbaijan has supplied humanitarian aid to Armenians in Karabakh and created transportation routes for Armenia, demonstrating that it is a peaceful regional player in the Karabakh region. Now it is up to Armenia to follow through on the trilateral peace pact.
Victory, war crimes, ceasefire, occupation, OSCE Minsk Group, Peacekeeping Forces, reconstruction, development, rebirth, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, Trilateral Agreement
The goal of this study is to shed light on the Second Karabakh War and Azerbaijan’s and the region’s future prospects. Azerbaijan’s development activities are being led by President Ilham Aliyev. Nagorno-Karabakh under Armenian and Azerbaijani control is compared.
The data is collected from articles, news, official websites of think tanks and Azerbaijan government. Data is not collected directly from Azerbaijani people in the form of interviews.
The illegal occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh which leads to war after 27 years, its further implications on the region after liberation most importantly future development projects as well as peace keeping troops in Karabakh.
All for Karabakh
Role of the organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe
The United Nations resolutions on Karabakh
Resolution 822, 853, 874, 884
Tovuz Clashes: A message from Russia to Azerbaijan
Russia’s imposed peace on Azerbaijan-Armenia bloodshed
Trilateral peace agreement
Trans Adriatic Pipeline
Land mines in Karabakh by Ahmet Gencturk
Zehra Nur Duz (Ankara)
Azerbaijan prepares for Karabakh resettlement
Smart village project by Ayya Lmahamad
Azerbaijani and Turkish presidents lay foundation of Dost Agro Park in Zangilan
By Said Garib
Russian peacekeepers in Karabakh: Old model new features, Mission creep
part 1,2,3 by Vladimir Soccor
Trilateral working group on Karabakh resumes work in Moscow 
Azerbaijan and Armenia is ready to improve relations
By Liz Cookman
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Chatham house , 2020.
Center Virtual Karabakh Info-communication technology. “All for Karabakh”.
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Al Jazeera , 2021.
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Gencturk, Ahmet. Land mines in Karabakh . Ankara : Anadolu Agency, 2021
Isayev, Heyder. Azerbaijan prepares for Karabakh resettlement . Baku:
Eurasia net , 2021 .
Lmahamad, Ayya. Smart village project. Baku : Azer News, 11/17/2021
POW. Baku: Ministry of foreign affairs of Republic of Azerbaijan, 2021
Sheikh, Vusal Mansurov and Aabid Majeed. “Tovuz Clashes: A message
from Russia to Azerbaijan.” Journal of advances and scholarly researches
in allied education vol 17, 10/2/2020.
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Malik Musavar Həmid
QARABAĞIN GƏLƏCƏYİ: SÜLH, QAYIDIŞ, BƏRPA VƏ DİRÇƏLİŞ
Sovet dövründə Qarabağ Azərbaycanın tərkibində 4400 kvadrat kilometr ərazisi olan muxtar vilayət idi. 1991-ci ildə Ermənistanın işğalçılıq siyasəti nəticəsində Ermənistanla Azərbaycan arasında Birinci Qarabağ müharibəsi başladı.
1994-cü ildə hər iki ölkə atəşkəs haqqında razılığa gəlib. BMT Təhlükəsizlik Şurası torpaqların işğalı və azad edilməsi ilə bağlı 4 qətnamə qəbul edib. Azərbaycan tərəfindən münaqişənin sülh yolu ilə həlli və Cənubi Qafqazda sülhün qorunması üçün çoxlu cəhdlər edilib. Azərbaycanın qarşı çıxmasına baxamayaraq, “Dağlıq Qarabağ”da qanunsuz seçkilər keçirildi.
2020-ci il sentyabrın 27-də erməni tərəfinin təxribatı nəticəsində Azərbaycanla Ermənistan arasında hərbi əməliyyatlar başladı və nəticədə 44 gün davam edən İkinci Qarabağ müharibəsi baş verdi. Bu müharibədə əzəli torpaqlarını erməni işğalından azad edən Azərbaycan qalib gəldi.
Rusiya Federasiyasının təşəbbüsü ilə noyabrın 9-dan 10-na keçən gecə Dağlıq Qarabağ münaqişəsi zonasında tam atəşkəs və bütün hərbi əməliyyatların dayandırılması haqqında üçtərəfli bəyanat imzalandı. Rusiya Federasiyasının sülhməramlı kontingentinin qalma müddəti 5 il müəyyən edilib.
Açar sözlər: Azərbaycan, Ermənistan, ATƏT, Qarabağ müharibələri, postmünaqişə, sülh, qaçqınların qaytarılması, bərpa və dirçəliş
Малик Мусавар Хамид
Будущее Карабаха: мир, возвращение, восстановление и возрождение
В советский период Карабах был автономной областью в составе Азербайджана площадью около 4400 квадратных километров. В 1991 году Армения и Азербайджан получили независимость от Советского Союза. В результате оккупационной политики Армении разразилась первая карабахская война между Арменией и Азербайджаном. Совет Безопасности ООН принял 4 резолюции об оккупации и освобождении земель.
В 1994 году обе страны достигли соглашения о прекращении огня. Несмотря на это, в самопровозглашенной “Нагорно-Карабахской Республике” в то время проводились незаконные выборы, против которых выступил Азербайджан. Было предпринято много попыток решить конфликт мирным путем и сохранить мир на Южном Кавказе. Но 27 сентября 2020 года в результате провокации армянской стороны между Азербайджаном и Арменией вспыхнули боевые действия, вылившиеся в “Вторую карабахскую войну”, которая длилась 44 дня. В этой войне победил Азербайджан, освободивший свои исконные земли от армянской оккупации. По инициативе Российской Федерации в ночь с 9 на 10 ноября было подписано трехстороннее заявление о полном прекращении огня и всех боевых действий в зоне нагорно-карабахского конфликта. Согласно заявлению, контингент российских миротворческих сил временно дислоцирован в Карабахе сроком на 5 лет.
Ключевые слова: Азербайджан, Армения, ОБСЕ, карабахские войны, постконфликтный период, мир, возвращение беженцев, восстановление и возрождение