Prof. Dr.,  Turkic Academy/ Üsküdar University, Faculty of

Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Sociology


E-mail: ebulfez.suleymanli@uskudar.edu.tr

ORCID: 0000-0003-1894-5232


Lec.,Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences,

Department of Political Science and International Relations


E-mail: gacikel@yildiz.edu.tr

ORCID: 0000-0001-7619-3513


Abstract. The current state and issues facing universities in the Turkic Republics were assessed in this study using empirical data based on the connection between the information society and higher education. The research used a “case study” format, which is a type of qualitative research technique. A numerical analysis of the current state was also conducted using the “document analysis” method.

When we examine higher education in the Turkic Republics as a whole, we discover that academic standards are not updated in line with education for the information society, academic research is not conducted in line with the philosophy of knowledge creation, academicians fail to guide university students in line with education for the information society, and graduate programs are unable to integrate information sector skills. Additionally, it is evident that universities in the concerned countries are unable to fulfill their obligations in accordance with the needs of the information society when factors like the inability to update university curricula to meet those needs, a lack of academic study sharing, and a fall in the share of national income given to universities are added to the current situation.

The statistics are also negatively impacted by this situation. No university from the Turkic Republics is listed among the top 100 universities in the world, according to the Times Higher Education (THE) 2020 report, which is known as one of the most trustworthy university rankings in the world.

In the twenty-first century, modern society is moving towards a post-information society. During such a period, the Turkic Republics must not fall behind the times and must maintain a steady pace of development. To do this, they need to adapt to a new knowledge-based economic and social order, engage in the process of rapid technological change, and develop a new human model based on ideals that make continual learning a way of life based on the concept of “information person.”

 Keywords: Information society, university, challenges,Turkic Republics, student mobility, lifelong education,distant education



Knowledge production has become the most essential form of production in the economic competition between nations as a result of the fact that it is the cornerstone of today’s social, political, and economic system, also known as globalization, the information age, or the knowledge-based economy, and that it is highly valued. Universities have been given significant roles to fill in order to meet this need [5].

Universities are diverse, intellectually stimulating institutions that work to advance the economic, social, and political well-being of the nations to which they belong. They also carry out scientific research to increase societal welfare. In this context, universities offer public services in many different ways by enhancing social welfare, quality of life, and a variety of other social, economic, and cultural aspects [1]. They are now more than just educational and research institutions; they are also institutions that develop innovative models and guide people who may influence social, political, and economic developments [11].

When considering universities’ social and cultural roles, there are differing perspectives on the services they provide or should provide to the general public. In his study “Transforming the University to Serve the Digital Age,” Duderstadt classifies the main drivers of change in higher education as economic, social, and technological advances [3].

Duderstadt claims that in the near future, the most important challenge for higher education institutions will be to build the capacity for change, remove the obstacles that slow down quick responses to requests, get rid of pointless administrative structures and processes, challenge the viability of current structures and laws, and excite and encourage all members of the academia while challenging those who obstruct the process. He emphasizes in his writing on higher education in the digital age that the educational paradigm based on conditions and needs from the industrial age is insufficient to meet the needs and demands of the 21st century student [10].

Universities are a source of both the greatest potential for both developed and developing economies: educated and skilled individuals as well as new ideas. As a result, worries about the state of the world’s future and the economy’s rapid change naturally attract attention to universities. Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Harvard University, which consistently rank highly internationally, have licensing and patenting businesses, and are centers of technological innovation, are just a few institutions that have successfully undergone transformation [2]. The economic development of the entire world as well as that of their own countries can be influenced by these universities.

In the context of the evolving higher education system from the past to the present, universities today are changing. Traditional university structures have been under increasing pressure to change since the 1980s as a result of economic, social, and intellectual factors (the external environment), which has resulted in a gradual abandoning of conventional models [14]and the rise of new market-oriented management models [9]. The level of development produced by today’s rapidly evolving science and technology highlights the significance of universities as knowledge production hubs that distinguish communities through education and knowledge production [12].

Given that many of the Turkic Republics are developing nations with sizable populations of young people, their situation is critical in this regard. In actuality, the Turkic Republics have displayed an economic growth trend that is more dependent on resources of nature during this time, with the exception of Türkiye, which enjoyed thirty years of independence following the collapse of the USSR. For the first stage of the process of independence, referred to as the transition phase, such an economic development model can be accepted; however, in order for this process to be feasible, it is important to embrace a development model in line with the features of the information society. In light of this, universities in the Turkic Republics must stay current with technological advancements and the information society, as well as help bring about societal change. For these reasons, solving learning issues in higher education is crucial to establishing an information society and meeting the new demands of the age.

This study will use empirical findings to assess the current state and issues facing universities in the Turkic Republics, starting with the relationship between the information society and higher education. The study used the “document analysis” method and adhered to the “case study” pattern, one of the qualitative research techniques.


The Place of Universities in Turkic Republics in the World University Ranking


We all know that universities are international organizations that carry out both educational and scientific research. Universities are important in this context because ongoing education is the central tenet of the information society. Universities are crucial because they serve as hubs for the flourishing, blending, and dissemination of scientific thought for the benefit of sizable populations [6]. However, with the available teaching staff and resources, universities can fulfill their expected role. Developed nations spend a lot of money on publications and research at universities.

Regarding this, despite the rising number of universities in these nations, the inadequate academic networks, the insufficient standards and quantity of teaching staff, the low expenses on higher education, the extremely low number of entrepreneurial universities, and the unsatisfactory level of student mobility, the lack of informatics, poor technology, hardware, and software, a lack of university independence at the level desired by information society education, a lack of scientific publications, curriculums that are not tailored to the needs of the business world, newly founded universities that are not in line with the goals of the information society, a dearth of research universities, and a lack of theme universities all serve as impediments to the development of the information society.

The statistics are also negatively impacted by this situation. In fact, no university from the relevant countries has been listed among the top 100 universities in the world, according to the findings of the Times Higher Education (THE) 2020 report, which is regarded as one of the most trustworthy university rankings in the world with its conclusions since its first publication in 2010. Al Farabi National University, the only institution from Kazakhstan, came in at number 207, and Gumilev Eurasian National University, also from Kazakhstan, came in at number 408 [8].

Çankaya University, Koç University, and Sabancı University, all of which were ranked between 401 and 500, were considered to be the top three universities in Türkiye. Middle East Technical University (METU) was positioned between positions 501 and 600. Three Turkish universities existed between 601 and 800: Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Hacettepe University, and Bahçeşehir University. There were six universities between 801 and 1000: Bilkent, Bogazici, Duzce, Fırat, Istanbul Medeniyet, and Ozyegin [4].

The efficient use of resources is another important consideration when making investments in science and education. The media in the relevant countries has expressed concerns about the inefficient use of the resources created in this context, despite the fact that the amount of resources given to education has risen in recent years. Even though it is well known that investments in higher education have a significant economic payoff, the inability of the relevant nations to reach the needed level of science and education spending continues to be a source of paradox in the education community. However, the information at hand suggests that Kazakhstan will benefit more from the procedure. In this nation, it is easier for academics to access research funding, more foreign visiting faculty members are invited each year, and a lot of master’s and doctoral scholarships are provided by the government to motivate more qualified young people to engage in scientific pursuits, research, and internships abroad. These facts are obvious indicators of this fruitful procedure. The higher positions of Kazakhstani universities in international rankings and an increase in the quantity of academic publications by Kazakh authors in journals indexed by Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus can be seen in this context as beneficial results of such investments [12].




One of the most significant, if not the first, organizations in the information society are universities. Universities, like all other institutions, are fundamentally impacted by information technology because they are the primary institutions responsible for producing and disseminating knowledge, which is the “raw material” of the knowledge economy [13]. In fact, it is noted that rather than remaining a science-based, single-disciplinary institution, universities in the 21st century have experienced an enormous change and are moving toward becoming a worldwide information hub. As the world transitions to fourth and fifth generation universities, universities are changing structurally and evolving into institutions that not only generate knowledge but also transfer it and create commercial value. Countries whose universities are unable to keep up with changes in the production, packaging, and circulation of information and are unable to follow the path of restructuring will not be able to take the desired position in the information society, it has been observed in this process.

Turkic Republics should convert their universities into institutions that can be considered centers of data generation in order to avoid being left behind in the shift to the information society. The university, in particular during this process, ought to be able to meet expectations on a personal and social level and support efforts to address problems and needs. The adoption of contemporary educational initiatives and the provision of high-quality education are crucial for performing these tasks. The objectives and educational contexts of higher education programs, as well as the parameters of their testing contexts, must therefore be examined and developed. The education system and educational establishments in the Turkic Republics are primarily responsible for developing the human model needed by the information society, responding to its unique needs, and adapting to them in terms of their current structure and practice.

To put it another way, the Turkic Republics must realize the mission of establishing a university that will enable them to participate in the rapid technological transformation process while our modern world is moving in the direction of an information society and even a post-information society.



  1. Charles, D. (2003). Universities and territorial development: Reshaping the regional role of UK. Universities. Local Economy, 18 (1), (7-20).
  2. Çetin, M. (2007). “Bölgesel Kalkınma ve Girişimci Üniversiteler”. Ege Akademik Bakış, 7(1), 217-238.
  3. Duderstadt, J.J. (1998). Transforming the university to serve the digital age. Cause/Effect, 20(4), 21-32.
  4. Euronews 2022, Dünyanın en iyi üniversiteleri açıklandı: İlk 500’de Türkiye’den sadece 3 üniversite var, https://tr.euronews.com/2022/10/12/dunyanin-en-iyi-universiteleri-aciklandi-ilk-500de-turkiyeden-sadece-1-universite-var
  5. Göransson, B., & Brundenius, C. (Eds.) (2011). Universities in transition: The changing role and challenges for academic institutions. In International Development Research Centre (Ed.), Insight and innovation in international development (pp. 3-10). New York: Springer, akt.
  6. Gündüz, A.Y. (2017). “Ülke kalkınmasında üniversitelerin rolü: Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu üniversiteleri örneği”. Sakarya İktisat Dergisi, 6(1), 56-69.
  7. Kuzu Ö. H. (2020). “Dünya çapında üniversiteler” bağlamında misyon-vizyon üzerine karşılaştırmalı bir çalışma. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi/Journal of Higher Education and Science, 10(1), 8-23.
  8. Nonews (2021) Reyting luchshikh universitetov stran SNG (Türkçesi: BDT ülkelerindeki en iyi üniversitelerin sıralaması ) https://nonews.co/directory/lists/companies/university-rus %20DFA_ru_final%20%281%29.pdf, p.35.
  9. Öncel, Mesut. Üniversitelerin Başarı Sıralamalarında Metodolojik Problemler: Metodolojik Eleştirilere Yönelik Bir Literatür Taraması, Alanya Academic Review Journal Yıl:2017, C:1, S:1, s. 14-26 Year:2017, Vol:1, No:1, pp. 14-26.
  10. Saykili, A. (2019). Higher education in the digital age: The impact of digital connective technologies. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 2(1), 1-15.
  11. Suleymanov, A. “The Way to the Modern University”, Sociology of science and technology, Vol 1 (3), 51-57, Sankt-Peterburg, 2011.
  12. Süleymanlı, E. (2022). Türk Cumhuriyetlerinin Eğitim Sistemlerinin Uluslararası Kriterler Bağlamında Değerlendirilmesi, Ege Üniversitesi Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Enstitüsü’nün Kuruluşunun 30.Yıl Anısına Uluslararası Türk Dünyası Sosyal Bilimler Sempozyumu 2-3 Aralık 2022 İzmir Bildiri Tam Metin Kitabı, Ed.Bilal Yıldırım, pp.83-9.
  13. Tonta, Yaşar (1999). “Bilgi toplumu ve bilgi teknolojisi” Türk Kütüphaneciliği 13(4): 363-375, Aralık 1999.http://yunus.hun.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar/biltop99a.htm
  14. Yamaç, K. (2009], Bilgi Toplumu ve Üniversiteler, Eflatun Yayınevi, Ankara, p. 165.



 Əbülfəz Süleymanlı, Gökhan Açıkəl



Bu tədqiqatda informasiya cəmiyyəti ilə ali təhsil arasındakı əlaqəyə əsaslanan empirik məlumatlardan istifadə edilməklə, türk dövlətləri universitetlərinin hazırkı vəziyyəti və üzləşdiyi problemlər araşdırılmışdır. Tədqiqatda keyfiyyətli tədqiqat texnikasının bir növü olan “case study” formatından istifadə edilmişdir. “Sənəd təhlili” üsulu ilə də mövcud vəziyyətin təhlili aparılmışdır.

Türk dövlətləriindəki ali təhsili bütövlükdə araşdırdıqda, akademik standartların informasiya cəmiyyəti üçün təhsilə uyğun yenilənmədiyini, akademik araşdırmaların biliklərin yaradılması fəlsəfəsinə uyğun aparılmadığını, professor-müəllim heyətinin universitet tələbələrinə istiqamət verə bilmədiklərini görürük. Magistr proqramları informasiya təhlükəsizliyi sahəsində bacarıqları birləşdirə bilmir. Bundan əlavə, aydındır ki, universitet kurikulumlarının bu ehtiyacları ödəmək üçün yenilənə bilməməsi, akademik işlərin bölüşdürülməməsi və s. mövcud vəziyyətə universitetlərə verilən milli gəlir payı əlavə edilir.

Statistikaya da bu vəziyyət mənfi təsir göstərir. Dünyanın ən etibarlı universitet reytinqlərindən biri kimi tanınan Times Higher Education-nin (THE) 2020-ci il üzrə hesabatına görə, türk dövlətlərindən heç bir universitet dünyanın ən yaxşı 100 universiteti arasında yer almayıb.

XXI əsrdə müasir cəmiyyətlər hətta artıq postinformasiya cəmiyyətinə də keçid alır. Belə bir dövrdə türk dövlətləri zamandan geri qalmamalı, sabit inkişaf tempini qorumalıdır. Bunun üçün onlar biliyə əsaslanan yeni iqtisadi və sosial nizama uyğunlaşmalı, sürətli texnoloji dəyişiklik prosesində iştirak etməli və davamlı öyrənməni həyat tərzinə çevirən ideallara əsaslanan yeni insan modelinin yetişdirilməsinə çalışmalıdırlar.

Açar sözlər: informasiya cəmiyyəti, universitet, problemlər, türk dövlətləri, tələbə mobilliyi, ömür boyu təhsil, distant təhsil


Абульфаз Сулейманлы, Гекхан Ачикель





В данном исследовании с использованием эмпирических данных, основанных на связи между информационным обществом и высшим образованием, оценивались современное состояние и проблемы, стоящие перед университетами тюркских республик. В исследовании использовался формат “кейс-стади”, который является типом метода качественного исследования. Также был проведен численный анализ текущего состояния методом “документного анализа”.

Когда мы рассматриваем высшее образование в тюркских республиках в целом, мы обнаруживаем, что академические стандарты не обновляются в соответствии с образованием для информационного общества, академические исследования не проводятся в соответствии с философией создания знаний, академики не могут направлять студентов университетов. в соответствии с образованием для информационного общества, и программы выпускников не могут интегрировать навыки информационного сектора. Кроме того, очевидно, что университеты в соответствующих странах не в состоянии выполнять свои обязательства в соответствии с потребностями информационного общества, когда такие факторы, как неспособность обновить университетские учебные программы для удовлетворения этих потребностей, отсутствие обмена академическими исследованиями и падение доли национального дохода, приходящейся на университеты, добавляются к текущей ситуации.

Такая ситуация негативно сказывается и на статистике. Согласно отчету Times Higher Education (THE) 2020, который известен как один из самых надежных рейтингов университетов в мире, ни один университет из тюркских республик не входит в число 100 лучших университетов мира.

В двадцать первом веке  современное общество переходит уже к постинформационному обществу. В такой период тюркские республики не должны отставать от времени и должны поддерживать устойчивый темп развития. Для этого им необходимо адаптироваться к новому экономическому и социальному порядку, основанному на знаниях, участвовать в процессе быстрых технологических изменений и разработать новую человеческую модель, основанную на идеалах, которые делают непрерывное обучение образом жизни, основанным на концепции “информационное лицо”.

Ключевые слова: Информационное общество, университет, вызовы, тюркские республики, студенческая мобильность, непрерывное образование, дистанционное образование